Universität Bonn

INRES Crop Science

Long-term experiment Dikopshof

Long-term fertilization experiment for field crops


The static long-term experiment Dikopshof was established in the year 1904 next to the city of Wesseling as a classical deficiency experiment and is one of the oldest long-term experiments in the world. A five-year crop rotation system (sugar beet, winter wheat, winter rye, clover, potatoe) was used on the experimental area with a total size of 3.67 ha. Each crop was divided into 24 experimental plots (with and without farmyard manure, with and without additional fertilizer, complete fertilizer, without nitrogen, phosphor, potassium or calcium and control)


Persons in charge

Dr. Hubert Hüging


since 1904


Crop Science, INRES (Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation), Bonn University

Cooperating partners

  • Bonn University INRES - Soil Science
  • Bonn University - Institute for Technology of Crop Farming
  • Cologne University
  • Kiel University
  • Halle University
  • Gießen University
  • JKI Quedlinburg


Ahrends, H.E., Eugster, W., Gaiser, T., Rueda-Ayala, V., Hüging, H., Ewert, F., Siebert, S., 2018. Genetic yield gains of winter wheat in Germany over more than 100 years (1895–2007) under contrasting fertilizer applications. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 104003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aade12

Bauke, S.L., Landl, M., Koch, M., Hofmann, D., Nagel, K.A., Siebers, N., Schnepf, A., Amelung, W., 2017. Macropore effects on phosphorus acquisition by wheat roots – a rhizotron study. Plant Soil 416, 67–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3194-0

Hadir, S., Gaiser, T., Hüging, H., Athmann, M., Pfarr, D., Kemper, R., Ewert, F., Seidel, S. J. Sugar beet shoot and root phenotypic plasticity to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and lime omission. Agriculture 2021. 11, 21. doi: 10.3390/agriculture1101002

Herbst, M., Welp, G., Macdonald, A., Jate, M., Hädicke, A., Scherer, H., Gaiser, T., Herrmann, F., Amelung, W., Vanderborght, J., 2018. Correspondence of measured soil carbon fractions and RothC pools for equilibrium and non-equilibrium states. Geoderma 314, 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.GEODERMA.2017.10.047

Holthusen, D., Jänicke, M., Peth, S., Horn, R., 2012. Physical properties of a Luvisol for different long-term fertilization treatments: I. Mesoscale capacity and intensity parameters. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 175, 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201100075

Koch, M., Guppy, C., Amelung, W., Gypser, S., Bol, R., Seidel, S., Siebers, N., 2019. Insights into 33phosphorus utilisation from Fe- and Al-hydroxides in Luvisol and Ferralsol subsoils. Soil Res. 57, 447. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR18223

Körschens, M., 1990. Dauerfeldversuche: Übersicht, Entwicklung und Ergebnisse von Feldversuchen mit mehr als 20 Jahren Versuchsdauer. Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften.

Körschens, M., 2010. Der organische Kohlenstoff im Boden (Corg) – Bedeutung, Bestimmung, Bewertung Soil organic carbon (Corg) – importance, determination, evaluation. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 56, 375–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340903410246

Kumar, A., Shahbaz, M., Koirala, M., Blagodatskaya, E., Seidel, S.J., Kuzyakov, Y., Pausch, J., 2019. Root trait plasticity and plant nutrient acquisition in phosphorus limited soil. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201900322

Mertens,M.; F., Pätzold, S., Welp, G., 2008. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and its mapping with apparent electrical conductivity. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 171, 146–154. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200625130

Patzold, S., Mertens, F.M., Bornemann, L., Koleczek, B., Franke, J., Feilhauer, H., Welp, G., 2008. Soil heterogeneity at the field scale: a challenge for precision crop protection. Precis. Agric. 9, 367–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-008-9077-x

Rezaei, E.E., Siebert, S., Hüging, H., Ewert, F., 2018. Climate change effect on wheat phenology depends on cultivar change. Sci. Rep. 8, 4891. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23101-2

Rueda-Ayala, V., Ahrends, H.E., Siebert, S., Gaiser, T., Hüging, H., Ewert, F., 2018. Impact of nutrient supply on the expression of genetic improvements of cereals and row crops – A case study using data from a long-term fertilization experiment in Germany. Eur. J. Agron. 96, 34–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EJA.2018.03.002

Rodionov, A., Welp, G., Damerow, L., Berg, T., Amelung, W., Pätzold, S., 2015. Towards on-the-go field assessment of soil organic carbon using Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Developing and testing a novel tractor-driven measuring chamber. Soil Tillage Res. 145, 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.STILL.2014.08.007

Schellberg, J., Hüging, H., 1997. Die entwicklung der erträge von getreide, hackfrüchten und klee im dauerdüngungsversuch dikopshof von 1906 bis 1996. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 42, 303–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650349709385734

Seidel, S.J., Gaiser, T., Ahrends, H.E., Hüging, H., Siebert, S., Bauke, S.L., Gocke, M.I., Koch, M., Schweitzer, K. Schaaf, G., Ewert, F. Crop response to P fertilizer omission under a changing climate – experimental and modeling results over 115 years of a long-term fertilizer experiment. Field Crops Research. 2021 (268) 108174. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108174

Sibbesen, E., 1986. Soil movement in long-term field experiments. Plant Soil 91, 73–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02181820

Sun, Y., Druecker, H., Hartung, E., Hueging, H., Cheng, Q., Zeng, Q., Sheng, W., Lin, J., Roller, O., Paetzold, S., Schulze Lammers, P., 2011. Map-based investigation of soil physical conditions and crop yield using diverse sensor techniques. Soil Tillage Res. 112, 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.STILL.2010.12.002

Yi, J., Krusenbaum, L., Unger, P., Hüging, H., Seidel, S., Schaaf, G. and Gall J. Deep learning for non-invasive diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies in sugar beet using RGB images. Sensors. 2020, 20(20), 5893. doi:10.3390/s20205893 see video at DIGICROP2020 conference

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